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Section 3: Formatting
3. Formatting
This section describes the Bravo facilities for creating formatted text and pages. It you are not interested in formatting, you don’t have to read it. If you are interested, be sure to read sections 3.3 and 3.4, where you will find a lot of good advice.
Bravo normally describes character sizes and distances on the page in points. A point is a unit of distance used in the printing industry; there are 72 points per inch. Thus 36 points is 1/2 inch, and 18 points is 1/4 inch. In many cases, you can also specify distances in inches or centimeters, as described in section 3.2.
3.1 Making pretty characters
Bravo allows you to say how you want your text printed: in italics or bold face, underlined, in various sizes and type styles, superscripted or subscripted, etc. You can change the way existing text is printed, or you can say how you want the characters to appear as you are typing them in. We will begin by describing how to change the looks of existing text.
First, select the text you want to mess with. Then give the Look command. This command has a large number of options, each specified by a single character, which is sometimes followed by some additional information:
boldSHIFT B to un-bold
italicSHIFT I to un-italicize
to underlineSHIFT to remove the underline
to subscript (text down 4 pts)Down 0 ESC to remove subscript or
SHIFT or to superscript (up 4 pts)superscript
0 to 9 to set the typeface
visible to display spaces, tabs, and CRsSHIFT V to stop this.
Down followed by a distance (see below) toUp followed by a distance to move the
move the text down that distance, relative to
text up. Superscript is Up 4.
the baseline. Subscript is Down 4.
CLR (the blank key to the right of BS on an Alto-I, or the key labelled BW on an Alto-II) to restore the standard looks: font 0; not bold, italic, underlined, visible, graphic, up, or down.
The typeface is usually called the font. For Bravo, each different size of the same style is a different font, but bold and italic are considered to be in the same font. The choice of fonts is specified by your user profile in a way which is described later (in section 4.6), but the standard choice provided on the basic non-programmer’s disk is:
0Times Roman, 10 pt. This is the standard font.
1Times Roman, 8 pt.
2XEROX logo (only the capital letters E O R and X)
3Math, 10 pt. A large set of mathematical symbols. No bold or italics on hardcopy.
4Greek, 10 pt. No bold or italics on hardcopy.
5Times Roman, 12 pt.
6Helvetica, 10 pt.
7Helvetica, 8 pt.
8Gacha, 10 pt. This is a fixed-pitch font.
9Helvetica, 18 pt. The bold-face version of this font is especially good for making view-graphs.
You will find tables at the end of this manual which give the correspondence between ordinary characters and the Math and Greek fonts, and some samples of the various fonts.
There is another Look option which is very convenient. It is Look Same, followed by a copy selection. In this case, what is copied is the looks, rather than the characters. This is the way to get one piece of text to print in the same style as another piece.
Like most commands, Look can be repeated with ESC. This is useful if you want to change the looks of several pieces of text in the same way. You can also undo a Look with Undo.
You can find out what the looks of a character are by selecting it and giving the Look ? command. Bravo will tell you (in the system window) all the looks of the selected character. You may have to scroll the system window up in order to see all the looks.
When you start typing, the looks which will be attached to the characters you type are set to the looks of
the first character of the selection if the command is Insert or Replace;
the last character of the selection if the command is Append;
the standard looks otherwise.
To change the looks while you are typing text, use the CTRL key instead of the Look command: hold down CTRL and type the look you want. The only things described above which you can’t do this way are Look Up and Down; you can get the standard superscript and substript offsets with ↑ and ←, though. To restore the standard looks, you can just strike the CLR key; it is not necessary to use CTRL in this case.
3.2 Paragraphs
In addition to changing the looks of the characters, you can also change the shape of the text: the margins, space between lines, justification, centering, etc. The Bravo facilities for doing this are based on the idea of a paragraph.
A paragraph in Bravo is all the text between two CTRL-CR characters. You can tell when you have one by selecting it. To do this, move the cursor into the line bar, which is between the scroll bar on the far left, and the text area. You can tell that you are in the line bar, because the cursor will appear as a rightward-pointing arrow. Once you are in the line bar, use the YELLOW button to select a paragraph. Note that the cursor changes to a paragraph symbol; it keeps this shape as long as the selection is a paragraph.
The CTRL-CR that ends a paragraph carries the paragraph looks described below. It can also carry character looks, and if you are setting up a standard paragraph, it is a good idea to attach to its CTRL-CR the character looks which you want as the standard ones for the paragraph. Thus, for example, the CTRL-CR for a standard heading like the one at the start of this section would carry the italic look. Of course, this is just a convenience, and not essential; you can always set the character looks during typein as described above, e.g. by typing ic for italics.
If the text at the end of a paragraph is in a font smaller than the standard one, as this one is, the CTRL-CR ending the paragraph should carry the same font looks. Otherwise, the inter-line spacing of the paragraph may appear uneven.
The YELLOW button selects exactly one paragraph, so by looking at what is underlined you can tell where the paragraph starts and ends. Note that the second CTRL-CR (the one that ends the paragraph) is counted as part of the paragraph; the first CTRL-CR is part of the previous paragraph. You can use BLUE to extend the selection to several paragraphs.
To merge two paragraphs into one, just delete the CTRL-CR that separates them. You will probably want to replace it with a couple of spaces, or maybe with an ordinary CR. To break one paragraph into two, insert a CTRL-CR; it is just like any other character, except that you can’t backspace over it.
If you select a paragraph and then give an Append, Insert or Replace command, a blank paragraph with the same looks as the selected one will be created for you to type into.
To change the looks of a paragraph, you can use some more sub-cases of the Look command. Select the paragraph (or any text in it) first, and then say Look, followed by:
center; turns off justificationSHIFT C to stop centering
justify (even right margin); turns off centeringSHIFT J to stop justifying
nested to indent the whole paragraph (36 pts, SHIFT N to un-indent
1/2 inch, more)
open up more white space in front of theSHIFT O to close up the white space
paragraph (12 pts, or
1/6 inch, more)
q to open up half as much more white space inSHIFT Q to close up the white space
front of the paragraph as Open does (6 pts more)
All of these can be invoked during type-in; hold down the CTRL key and strike the appropriate key, just as you do for character looks.
In the following Look cases, d is a distance on the page, which can be specified in several different ways, as described below. Distances are measured from the left edge of the paper (except for Up and Down, which measure from the baseline of the line of text). These looks cannot be used during type-in.
Left d to set the left margin. The default is 85 points, or about 1.2 inches from the left edge of the paper.
First d to set the left margin of the first line. Use this to control indenting or un-indenting of the first line. A Look Left cancels a Look First, since it sets the left margin for all the lines of the paragraph.
Paragraph d to set the left margin of all the lines except the first. A Look Left cancels a Look Paragraph, since it sets the left margin for all the lines of the paragraph.
Right d to set the right margin. The default is 527 points. Since an 8.5" x 11" page is 612 points wide, this results in 85 points, or 1.18", of white space on the right. Thus, the default margins center the text on the page.
X n to set the space or leading between lines. The leading should be at least 1 point (as it is in this document) to avoid a squashed effect. If you want a less dense appearance, try larger leadings. The default is 6pt, which gives double spaced text.
Y n to set the leading in front of the paragraph. The default is 12pt, which gives a blank line between paragraphs. Look open increases the paragraph leading by 12 pts, and Look q increases it by half that, or 6 pts. On hardcopy, both line and paragraph leading are suppressed for the first line of a page or column. Leading must be less than 64 points.
Here are the ways to specify the distance. Try them out until you are quite comfortable with them.
By typing a number in one of the following forms:
123 or 123pta distance in points. A point is a printer’s unit equal to 1/72 of an inch. A number without a decimal point and with no explicit units is assumed to be in points.
1.71, 1.71in or 1.71"a distance in inches. A number with a decimal point and no explicit units is assumed to be in inches.
4.34cma distance in centimeters.
a sequence of blanksa distance equal to the width of that many blanks.
By typing a number n, as above, preceded by + or . The distance specified by n is added to, or subtracted from, the current value of the look being changed. Thus, to indent a paragraph by an additional one-half inch, type Look Left +.5 ESC.
By using BLUE to point to a place on the screen. The horizontal position of the place you point at is displayed in the system window. If you hold down BLUE and move around, the displayed position is updated continuously.
By using RED to select a character. The horizontal position of the left edge of the character is displayed in the system window.
By typing \ (back-slash, not /), which displays a default value for the look being changed in the system window.
By just typing ESC, which uses the value already in the leftmost buffer of the system window.
You can select, point or default as many times as you want, just as with an ordinary copy selection. Then you can type a number, if you like. When the leftmost buffer in the system window has the value you want, type ESC to complete the command. Of course, if you get disgusted you can always type DEL to cancel the whole thing. Note that pointing is a convenient way to measure horizontal positions on the page.
Look All, followed by a copy selection, will copy all the paragraph looks of the paragraph in which the copy selection is made, to the paragraph containing the current selection. Note that Look All copies paragraph looks whereas Look Same copies character looks.
If a paragraph is selected (using YELLOW in the line bar; the cursor will be a paragraph symbol when a paragraph is selected), the Look ? command will display the paragraph looks in the system window; if the selection is not a paragraph, the command displays character looks, as described in the previous section. You may have to scroll the system window to see all the information. Note that it appears in a buffer (see section 4.5) which is made current, and you can insert it into a document with a default insertion.
If you have a paragraph whose left margin is less than the default (normally 85 pts), any characters in the paragraph to the left of the default margin will fall off the left edge of the window and will not be displayed. Try setting a left margin to some values less than 85, and see how this works. You can change the setting of the left edge of the window, so as to make these characters visible on the screen, with the command
Window Edge dd is a distance, which must be typed in and cannot be obtained by pointing.
The distance d is the distance from the left edge of the page at which the left edge of the window should be set. It should be smaller than any paragraph left margin if you want to see all the characters on the left. For instance, if d is 0, the window edge will be at the paper edge; if the text has the usual 85 pt margin, this will result in 1.2" of white space in the window (in addition, of course, to the white space in the line and scroll bars). The default value for d is the default left margin.
You can select several paragraphs (using BLUE to extend your selection) and apply the same Look command to all of them. You can change the looks of every paragraph in the document by doing an Everything to select the whole document before the Look. A Look command involving a distance of the form +n or n adds or subtracts n from the look value for each selected paragraph. Thus, Look Left +5 ESC will indent each selected paragraph by five more points.
If you use several different formats (e.g., for section headings or for indented material) you can copy the formatting from an existing example of a particular style to a newly created one with Look All. Often it is convenient to put a set of sample paragraphs at the head of your document, each containing one line which explains what it is a sample of. Then you can split the window (as described in section 4.2) and have the samples readily available to copy from with Look All. This is highly preferable to entering all the new looks manually every time you switch to a new format.
An alternative technique for creating a new paragraph in a specific style is to select the paragraph before or after the point at which the new paragraph is to appear, then Append or Insert and make a copy selection of the desired sample paragraph. Now select the text of the newly-created paragraph, not including the CTRL-CR at the end, and Replace it with new text that you type in. This method copies both character looks and paragraph looks from the sample paragraph.
When you are setting up the format for a document, you should put a few blank paragraphs (just CTRL-CRs) at the end, and set the formatting on all of them to your standard format (it is convenient to do this by copying the formatting from a paragraph which already has your standard format). This might include indenting the first line of a paragraph, setting the leading, leaving space between paragraphs, justification, and even the font. Now when you add material to the document by inserting into one of these blank paragraphs, you will automatically pick up all of the formatting you have preset. As you type along, each time you use a CTRL-CR to start a new paragraph, it will acquire the same formatting as the old one.
3.3 Formatting style
This section is intended to provide you with some guidance in using all the different ways Bravo gives you for controlling the appearance of your document. Many of the rules are based on the customs of the printing industry. There are two advantages to following these customs:
they are the result of many years of experimentation, during which many people have tried to find out what looks good on the page;
readers are accustomed to seeing text presented in this style.
You will notice that some of the rules are contrary to the usual practice for preparing documents on a typewriter. There are good reasons for this: when you are printing with variable-pitch fonts, italics, boldface, justification, and precisely controlled leading, some of the things which work well for fixed-pitch, single-font documents are no longer appropriate.
Use italics for emphasis in text. You can also use boldface, but this is usually less desirable, and it is better to reserve boldface for words which play some special role, e.g., begin and end in computer programs. You should also use italics for the names of variables, e.g., "Suppose there are n items."
Don’t use underlining for emphasis; it is not compatible with the use of italics and boldface. Use underlining only when you want a different kind of emphasis, e.g., to distinguish the characters a user types from the ones the machine types, as is done in this document.
Don’t capitalize a whole word for emphasis. In fact, try not to capitalize a whole word at all; it usually looks terrible in a variable-pitch font because the capital letters are so much wider than the small ones. If you have words which you think should be set in capitals for some reason, try SMALL CAPITALS. In this example, the S and C were 10 point (font 0), the rest of the letters 8 point (font 1). Compare this with the appearance of FULLY CAPITALIZED words and you will see the point.
In general, use left-justified rather than centered headings, and don’t use all capitals, for the reasons just discussed. Here is a satisfactory list of styles for the headings of successively larger portions of your document:
smallestItalic18 pt paragraph leading (Look Y 18, or Look q if your standard leading is 12 pts).
nextBold24 pt paragraph leading (Look Y 24, or Look o if your standard leading is 12 pts).
largest12 pt bold36 pt paragraph leading (Look Y 36, or Look o twice if your standard leading is 12 pts).
Note that you can switch from the standard leading to the 1.5, 2 or 3 times standard leadings for headings during typein, using oc and qc. For the largest units, you can center the heading and/or use all caps instead of, or as well as, switching to a 12 pt font. It is best not to have more than three levels of heading, but you can extend to four or five levels using these tricks. Helvetica 18 bold (font 9 bold) is sometimes nice for chapter or document titles.
Use Look Keep 80 (see section 3.6) on headings to make sure that the heading doesn’t end up all by itself at the bottom of a page.
The standard printing fonts are designed in such a way that they need some extra space between the lines to avoid a cramped appearance. You put this space in with Look X, and you should use 1 pt for ordinary single-spaced text. If you want a less dense appearance, experiment with more leading. For double-spacing of the text, try Look X 6 (the default).
Use double spacing (Look o) between paragraphs. When you have indented material which is fairly short, try 6 pt leading (Look q), as in the example two paragraphs back. Don’t use extra carriage returns to get blank space between paragraphs. However, the maximum leading you can specify is 63 points; if you need more (e.g., to leave space for a figure) you will have to put in blank paragraphs.
Note that both line and paragraph leading are suppressed for the first line of a page or column. The height of a line of text (in points) is equal to the point size of the largest font used in the line, provided there are no characters which have been superscripted, subscripted or offset with Look Up or Look Down. If any character in the line is offset Up, the minimum line height, including leading, is given by the font size of the character, plus its offset; i.e., characters offset Up are allowed to eat into the leading. If a character is offset Down, the largest such offset must be added to obtain the line height; i.e., characters offset Down are not allowed to eat into the leading.
Use Look nested to indent material, and Look Nested to cancel the indentation. Note that this also works when you are typing in. For example, if you type
CRcnc Here are three points: CRcncFirst ..CRcSecond ..CRcThird ..CRcNcNow we continue ...
the document will look like this:
Here are three points:
First ..
Second ..
Third ..
Now we continue ..
Use Look First if you want to indent the first line of a paragraph, rather than tabs. When you have a list of items, it is often nice to unindent the first line by about 15 pts, especially if the items are numbered. For example:
1.This paragraph was formatted with Look Left 120, Look First 15, in order to make the number hang out to the left.
2.To get the first word of the first line to line up with the left margin on subsequent lines, set a tab stop at that point (see section 3.5).
3.The easiest way to specify the position of the tab stop is to select the first character of the second line, using RED. In this case, of course, the stop is at 120.
4.Indended paragraphs sometimes look better balanced if the right margin is indented as well. Unfortunately, Look nested doesn’t do this for you; you have to change the right margin yourself using Look Right d.
Use the smallest offset you can get away with for subscripts and superscripts, since large offsets result in wide ugly spaces between the lines. The offset used by Look ↑ (superscript) and Look ← (subscript) are defined in your user profile (see section 4.6); the standard profile sets it to 4 pts.
3.4 Forms
Although Bravo will let you begin with a completely empty window and start typing into it, this is a bad practice and should be avoided. Instead, you should start out by Getting a template or form which will guide you in constructing the document you want.
An obvious example is a memo form, and you will find one on the file Form.Memo. Start Bravo, and Get Form.Memo into the window. You will see that it has spaces for the sender, receiver, date and subject, and that these are filled in with words which indicate what should go there. To fill in the form, select each of these words, and Replace it with the proper text. Then do the same with the MEMOBODY. When you are done, you have a completed memo which you can file under a suitable name using Put. Be careful not to Put the document back onto the file from which the form came. The best way to avoid doing this is to edit the file name in the black bar above the document immediately after Getting the form.
Your disk comes equipped with a few forms; you can see their names by typing form. TAB to the Executive. You should construct your own forms for other kinds of documents which you find yourself creating frequently. As you have seen in the description of Bravo’s formatting features above, a form can contain a great deal of information in addition to standard text and spaces to be filled in. You will find that your life is easier and your work is more uniform and of higher quality if you use forms consistently, and take the trouble to carefully design a new one when necessary.
3.5 White space and tabs
When you type on a typewriter, you can get white space to appear between characters by typing spaces or TABs. You can get blank lines by typing carriage returns. In Bravo, you can do exactly the same things, with exactly the same results. Space, TAB and CR are characters which are in your document exactly like "a", "b" or "c". You can get Bravo to display them as special, visible characters by selecting the text in which you want to see them, and typing
Look visible(this must be a lower-case v).
To turn off the display and just see the usual white space, type
Look Visible(this must be an upper-case V).
Normally you don’t have to type any CRs; Bravo will automatically end a line when there is no room for the next word. You can force a line to end by putting in a CR; this is appropriate when you want to control the layout of the text precisely, as in a table. Otherwise, don’t put in CRs. You should use CTRL-CR to end a paragraph, as described in section 3.2.
Bravo allows you to set up to 14 tab stops, which are named by the digits 1-9 and the letters abcde. The tab stops are paragraph looks, just like the margins; hence they can be different for each paragraph. You can set a tab stop with the command
Look TAB t d
where t is a digit or one of the letters abcde, and d is a distance (see section 3.2).
When you strike the TAB key during typein, the caret moves to the next tab stop, just as it does on a typewriter, and a TAB character is added to the document. This TAB character is called a plain-tab, because it moves the caret to the next tab stop, not to a specific named tab stop.
For example, suppose you have a line like this:
Column 1Column 2Column 3
Tab stops 1, 2, and 3 are at 180, 265 and 400 points, and there is a plain-tab between each digit and the following C. If you now append some x’s to the digit 1 to get past tab stop 1, the result will look like this:
Column 1xxxxxxxColumn 2Column 3
That is, the point to which a plain-tab jumps depends on the width of the preceding text. This can vary both when you change the text and when you switch to hardcopy mode; thus, the appearance of hardcopy may not match the screen if you are using plain-tabs.
You can turn a plain-tab into a named-tab by selecting it and issuing the command Look , t (Look comma t), where t is the name of a tab stop. A named TAB character will always make the following character print at the correspondingly named tab stop. If printing has already passed that tab stop, Bravo will start a new line, and display a heavy black rectangle at the end of the previous line, to warn you that something is wrong.
To continue the above example, suppose you name the first TAB 1 and the second 2. Now the result will look like this:
Column 1xxxxxxx;
Column 2Column 3
When you switch from normal display mode to hardcopy mode, there will usually be more white space occupied by the TAB (perhaps enough to permit printing all the text on one line), but everything will continue to be positioned horizontally in exactly the same way.
You can find out the name of a tab stop by selecting it and giving the Look ? command.
Caution: the Look comma command should be applied only to TAB characters. If applied to a character other than TAB, it will invoke some unsupported features for color printing.
For compatibility with old versions of Bravo, and with the programmer-oriented tab conventions of the Alto and Maxc, you can set unnamed or plain tab stops spaced at equal intervals with the command
Look TAB = d
where the distance d specifies the interval. If you don’t set any tab stops, you get plain tab stops spaced at 36 pts (this parameter comes from the user profile, and can be changed; see section 4.6).
One final word about white space: Bravo has formatting features, described in the section on paragraphs above, which allow you to indent the first line of a paragraph, and to put blank space above a paragraph, without using spaces, TABs or extra CRs. It is good practice to use these features, since you can control the spacing much more precisely and don’t have to worry about having extra characters cluttering up your document.
3.6 Page formatting
There are a number of features to help you in controlling the layout of your document on printed pages. Unlike the horizontal layout, the location of page breaks and the headings, page numbers etc. for the most part cannot be displayed on the screen. There is, however, a page boundary command which allows you to see on the screen where the page boundaries will appear in the hardcopy. The command is invoked by the LF key. It assumes that the first character of the current selection is the first character on a hardcopy page, and it moves the selection to the first line of the next page. By applying the page boundary command repeatedly, you can move through the document, page by page (or column by column, if your document profile specifies multiple columns; see below). Alternatively, if you know where one page break is (perhaps because of a control-L in the previous line; see below), you can start there. If you want to start at the beginning of the document, you can use the Everything command to make the first character of the document be the first character of the selection.
As a convenience, the page boundary command leaves the original selection at the top of one subwindow, and the first line of the next page as the third line of the next subwindow (which it creates if necessary). Among other things, this makes it easy to do some editing near the end of the page, and then reselect the beginning of the page and repeat the command. Try it.
Normally, Bravo will start a new page when it runs out of room on the current page, i.e., when the next line to be printed would intrude on the bottom margin, or at the beginning of a paragraph if the amount of space left before the botom margin is less than the paragraph’s keep value. You can force a page break by including a Lc (control-L) in the text; the line containing the Lc will stay on the same page, but the next line will start a new page. This character is displayed as a lower-case L with an over-bar. You can’t type it in simply by holding down CTRL and typing L, but instead you can type an L followed by Sc. You do this during an insertion, not as a command. The Lc is treated just like any other character during editing.
You can also force a paragraph to start a new page by giving it a keep property of 11". If you want to position the paragraph precisely on the new page, give it a vertical tab property as well.
You can exercise some control over where page breaks occur with the command
Look Keep dd is a distance
This sets the paragraph property called keep, which has the following meaning. During hardcopy, when printing of the paragraph is begun, the amount of space left on the page before the bottom margin must be at least the keep distance, or a new page will be started. For instance, by setting the keep of a heading to the total height of the heading (including its leading) plus the height of the first two lines of the next paragraph, plus the paragraph leading, you can ensure that the heading will never end up alone at the bottom of a page. Good values to use, with standard fonts and leading as in this document, are 40 pts on ordinary paragraphs and 80 pts on headings.
You can set the vertical position of a paragraph precisely on a page using the vertical tab property, which is set by the command
Look Z dd is a distance.
When a paragraph with a vertical tab is printed, its upper edge (including leading, if any) will be positioned at the vertical tab value, measured from the bottom of the page (i.e., use 10.5" to put it .5" from the top). Unlike a horizontal tab, which may start a new line, a vertical tab never starts a new page; instead, it may cause overprinting. Vertical tabs are useful for positioning headings and footnotes, and for precisely aligning text to meet some physical constraint, such as a pre-printed form or a window envelope. The first line of a paragraph with a vertical tab will be printed on the current page, even if it runs into the bottom margin (but not if the paragraph also has a keep property which forces it off the page).
Vertical tab and keep properties are not visible on the screen, but you can always use Look ? to find out whether a paragraph has them, and what their values are.
Note that both line and paragraph leading are suppressed for the first line of a page of column. If you want white space in front of such a line l, you can use vertical tabs, or introduce a blank line in front of line l, and adjust the leading of l to compensate for the height of the blank line.
The remaining aspects of page formatting can be controlled by an optional document profile which you can put at the very beginning of the document. The document profile is a sequence of paragraphs, each of which must have the profile property. This property is set and cleared by a Look command:
Look ; sets the profile propertyLook SHIFT ; clears it
A document profile has the following form (this one is the profile for this part of this manual):
Page Numbers: Yes X: 527 Y: .5" First Page: 40 Not-on-first-page
Private Data Stamp: No X: 3.5" Y:
Columns: 1 Edge Margin: .6" Between Columns: .4"
Margins: Top: 1.3" Bottom: 1" Binding:
Line Numbers: No Modulus: 5 Page-relative First Line: 1
Odd Heading: Not-on-first-page
Even Heading:
Section 3: Formatting
Any of the lines may be omitted, and in general any of the fields on a line may be omitted. Fields on a line are separated by one or more spaces. Distances, shown in inches in the example, may be given in points or centimeters, as described in section 3.2. X coordinates are from the left edge of the paper, Y coordinates from the bottom; negative coordinates are measured from the right edge or top of an 8.5" x 11" page. Bravo’s measurements on the page are exact to less than .01". Actual printers, however, can make errors in positioning the text on the page of as much as .25" in any direction. These errors do not affect the relative positions of characters (e.g., the length of a line cannot be affected) but they can cause the text to shift around on the page as a whole.
We now proceed to explain the various options.
The coordinates of the page number are the coordinates of the upper right corner of the number. You can add Roman to the line if you want Roman numerals for your page numbers, and Uppercase if you want the Roman numerals in upper case. If Not-on-first-page is present, the page number is not printed on the first page of the document. If First Page is not specified, it is assumed to be 1, and Not-on-first-page is also assumed for both page numbers and heading; i.e., there will be no page number or heading on page 1 in the default case.
Each page number’s looks are copied from the first character of the heading printed on the same page, if there is one, or from the first character of the document otherwise.
The coordinates of the private data stamp are for its upper right corner. Do not use a private data stamp without proper authorization. You will need to supply a password on each hardcopy to get the private data stamp applied; see your laboratory manager to learn the password if you have a legitimate need.
The top margin specifies the amount of white space at the top of the page. The bottom margin specifies the minimum amount of white space at the bottom of the page; a line will start a new page if any part of it intrudes into the bottom margin. Exception: if a paragraph has a vertical tab, its first line will be printed without regard to the bottom margin, and it may be positioned without any regard to the top margin.
If Binding appears, it is assumed that the pages are eventually to be printed on both sides of the paper, with odd-numbered pages on the right side of the resulting double spreads. Page numbers of even pages will be reflected left-to-right; in the example, even page numbers will have their upper left corner at X: .5" Y: .5". The binding distance is the amount of extra margin to be supplied on the inner side of the page, which abuts the binding. This amount is added to all the X coordinates on odd pages and subtracted from all the X coordinates on even pages. For example, if you want 98 pt (1.36") outside margins and 72 pt (1") inside margins, use a left margin (Look Left) of 85 pt (the default), and a right margin (Look Right) of 612 (8.5")85=527 (also the default) to center the text on the page. Then use a Binding of 7285=13. In general, the rule is:
Let d = (desired outside margin + desired inside margin)/2
Look Leftd
Look Right612 (8.5") d
Binding:desired inside margin d.
This rule will lead to a negative binding if the inside margin is less than the outside margin; that is perfectly all right.
The columns line is relevant only for multiple-column pages. It says that the hardcopy should have the specified number of columns, with the nominal edge margin (at both edges) specified (.6" in the example), and the amount of space between columns specified (.4" in the example). If the number of columns in the example is changed to 2, the nominal horizontal layout of an odd page will be:
.6" edge margin; 3.45" text, column 1; .4" between columns; 3.45" text, column 2; .6" edge margin
for a total of 8.5". The text is centered on the page; if a Binding is specified, the text will be displaced in opposite directions on odd and even pages, just as for single-column text. The width of the text in the columns (3.45 in this example) is determined by subtracting all the other space from the 8.5" page width. If there are nc columns, the column width is
col width = (8.5" 2*(edge margin) (nc1)*(between cols))/nc
The text width and position specified above is only nominal: the actual width and position is determined by the specified left and right margins in the following way. The first column is printed exactly as its left and right margins specify. The second column is moved right by (col width + between cols) from what its left margin specifies (i.e., that amount is added to all its X coordinates). This means, for example, that you can get a double-column page with some text at the top which runs all the way across by setting the right margin of the full-width text appropriately, and using a vertical tab to position the first paragraph of the second column below the full-width text. The appearance of the resulting page will be
Full-width text ...................................
first-col text second-col text
Note that to do this you must manually find the end of the first column (easily done using the page boundary command), and put a suitable vertical tab property on the first paragraph of the second column.
A consequence of this laissez-faire approach to column formatting is that you must supply the proper left and right margins yourself. To keep the text within the nominal boundaries defined above, the left margin should be greater than or equal to the edge margin specified in the document profile, and the right margin should be less than or equal to the edge margin plus the column width.
The edge margin specified in the example, which would be much too small for single-column pages, is good for double-column. It is also desirable to reduce the top and bottom margins when you are printing double-column, e.g., to .8" and .4" respectively.
When you are printing more than one column, a Lc in the document starts a new column rather than a new page. To start a new page, use two consecutive Lc characters.
If there is a line which says
Line Numbers: Yes Modulus: n Page-relative First Line: f
every nth line will be numbered, slightly to the left of the standard left margin. Thus, if n is 5, the numbers will be 5, 10, 15 .... If Page-relative appears, numbering starts over on each page; otherwise it continues throughout the document. If First Line appears, the first line is numbered f, and numbering continues from there; otherwise the first line is numbered 1.
If a Heading line appears, it must be followed by a paragraph, also with the profile property, which is used as the heading on each page. This paragraph should have a vertical tab which positions it correctly (for example, 10.5" for the heading on this page) and appropriate margins, centering or whatever to produce the desired effects. It may have more than one line. It is also possible to have separate Odd Heading and Even Heading paragraphs. If Not-on-first-page is present, the heading will not be printed on the first page.