Page Numbers: Yes First Page: 14
[Baudelaire1]Draw, by Patrick Baudelaire, found in the Alto User’s Handbook, updates in [Maxc]<Altodocs>Draw-News.Ears.
[Baudelaire2]Fred, by Patrick Baudelaire, [Maxc]<Gr-Docs>Fred.Ears, 22 pp.
[Baudelaire/Israel/Sproull] Array of Intensity Samples -- AIS, by Patrick Baudelaire, Jay Israel, and Robert Sproull, [Maxc]<AIS>AIS-Manual.Ears, 48 pp.
[Baudelaire/Swinehart]Pimlico Protocol and Software, by Patrick Baudelaire and Dan Swinehart, [Maxc]<Dover>Pimlico.Press, or [IFS]<Pimlico>Pimlico.Press, 21 pp.
[Boggs/Maleson/Tiberi]Empress, by David Boggs, Joe Maleson, and Rick Tiberi (D. Swinehart, ed.), [Maxc]<Altodocs>Empress.Tty, 5 pp.
[Boggs/Taft]FTP Reference Manual, by David Boggs and Edward Taft, found in the Alto User’s Handbook, or as [Maxc]<Altodocs>Ftp.Tty, 17 pp.
[Ellenby]Dover Overview, by John Ellenby, available from the author.
[Fiala1]Document Distribution, by Edward Fiala, [Maxc1]<Doc>Docudis.Ears (probably archived), 24 pp.
[Fiala2]Document Distribution, by Edward Fiala, [Maxc1]<Doc>Docdis.Ears (probably archived), 8 pp.
[Lampson]Bravo, Reference Manual, by Butler Lampson, found in the Alto User’s Handbook.
[Maleson1]Pictures, PRESS, and you, by Joe Maleson, archived on [maxc]<Press>HalftoneMemo.Press and HalftonePlates.Press.
[Maleson2]Rotating halftone screens, by Joe Maleson, archived on [Maxc]<Press>Rotation.Press.
[Newman1]Markup Reference Manual, by William Newman, found in the Alto User’s Handbook, or as [Maxc]<Altodocs>Markup.Ears, 11 pp.
[Newman2]PressEdit Reference Manual, by William Newman, [Maxc]<Altodocs>PressEdit.Tty, 1 pg.
[Newman/Mott]OfficeTalk Zero Reference Manual, by William Newman and Tim Mott, [Maxc]<SSLDocs>Oz-15.Ears, 25 pp.
[Newman/Sproull]Press File Format, by William Newman and Robert F. Sproull, [Maxc]<Gr-Docs>PressFormat.Press, 16 pp.
[Ornstein]Orbit General Description, by Severo Ornstein, [Maxc]<Dover>OrbitWriteup.Press, 38 pp.
[Rider1]Ears, Gears, Sears, and Other Related Items, by R. E. Rider, [Maxc]<Altodocs>Gears.Tty, 13 pp.
[Rider2]ROS Interface Conventions, by R. E. Rider, [Maxc]<Rider>RosInterface.Press, 4 pp.
[Rider3]RIS/ROS Interface Conventions, by R. E. Rider, [Maxc]<Rider>RisRosInterface.Press, 5 pp.
[Shoch1]A File Transfer Protocol Using the BSP -- 2nd Edition, by John Shoch, [Maxc]<Pup>FtpSpec.Ears, 16 pp.
[Shoch2]EFTP: A PUP-based Ether File Transfer Protocol, by John Shoch, [Maxc]<Pup>EFTPSpec.Ears, 16 pp.
[Sproull1]Press Printer Operation, by Robert F. Sproull,
[Sproull2]PrePress Manual, by Robert F. Sproull,
[Maxc]<GR-DOCS>PrePress.Ears, 17 pp.
[Sproull3]Programmer’s Guide to Orbit, the ROS Adapter, and the Dover Printer, by Robert F. Sproull, [Ivy]<Spruce>OrbitGuide.Press, 37 pp.
[Sproull4]Font Representations and Formats, by Robert F. Sproull,
[Maxc]<GR-DOCS>FontFormats.Ears, 21 pp.
[Swager]Gandalf (Pimlico) Overview, by Gary Swager, not yet released.
[Swinehart1]Spruce Reference Manual, by Dan Swinehart, [Ivy]<Spruce>SpruceManual.Press, 13 pp.
[Swinehart2]Let’s Talk About Printing, by Dan Swinehart, [Maxc]<Gr-Docs>PrintingUpdate.Press, 2 pp.
[Swinehart3]Printing at Palo Alto, by Dan Swinehart (this document), [Maxc]<Gr-Docs>Printing.Press, 23 pp.
[Taft1]Ears Protocols, by Edward Taft, [Maxc]<Pup>EarsProtocols.Bravo, 1 pg.
[Taft2]Alto Time Standard, by Edward Taft, [Maxc]<Taft>AltoTime.Bravo, 4 pp.
[Tesler]Pub: The Document Compiler, by Larry Tesler, Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Operating Note 70, September, 1972.
[Thacker/Sproull]Sil, Analyze, Gobble, Build Reference Manual, by C.P. Thacker and R.F. Sproull, [Maxc]<SIL>SILManual.Press, 27 pp. + appendices

Appendix -- Font Naming Conventions, User.Cm Formats
Font file naming convention:
B|L:Bold, Light
Condensed, Expanded
Point Size:
Omitted for device-independent fonts (outlines)
Designates encoding format (see below).
Examples: TimesRomanB.SD, TimesRoman10B.AC
Type face encoding convention (in Press files, font specifications):
B|M|R:Bold, Medium, Light2, 0, 4 (see [Sproull4])
Italic, Regular1, 0
Condensed, Expanded, Regular6, 12, 0
Font formats, identified by file extension:
.SFSpline outlines, represented by text descriptions.
.SDCompact outlines, produced by PrePress from .SF files (device-independent).
.ACRaster representations edited or created with PrePress from SD format
.CU"Carnegie-Mellon" format raster representations.| (device-dependent,
.ALRaster representations in Alto (CONVERT) format.| convertible to/from
.STRIKE Raster representations in Alto (BITBLT) format.| .AC format )
.EPEARS-format portrait font (run-coded raster).|
.ELEARS-format landscape font (run-coded raster).|

Example: Helvetica12I.EP is a 12-point Helvetica font for EARS (face code MIR).
User.Cm, [HARDCOPY] Section (Comprehensive example)
Press or Ears
EARS: PaloName or legal network address of Alto providing Ears printing service
PRESS: MenloSimilarly for preferred Press printer
Preferred color printer (Press only)
See explanation below
See explanation below
FONT:Overrides Empress’s default (Gacha8). Uses Face codes as given above.
PRINTEDBY:Overrides Empress, Bravo defaults (Username on Alto disk). The "$" character requests the Username field.
Others:See text (see also the [BRAVO] section of User.Cm.)

Appendix -- Printer Characteristics and Capabilities, Current Palo Alto Printers
Printer Specifications
PrinterPaper SpeedOrientationResolutionSoftwareNotes
Ears101Landscape1500x500SearsPredominantly text
Slot/31003.44either384Press6High quality graphics
Dover101Landscape300-400SprucePredominantly text, low res. bit maps
Sequoia3.44Landscape300-400Spruce3Low vol. text, quality graphics
Pimlico4187Portrait300-400Press2High quality color graphics
Colorado4187Portrait300-7004PressHigh quality 4-color gr., cop.
TC-200.55228Portrait200PressLow cost, RIS capability
1. Paper moves sideways through machine. Paper moves longways in Portrait mode.
2. Spruce is also available for this system.
3. Press may be available soon for this system, as well.
4.High resolution used in direct copying (RIS/ROS) operation, and in special printing modes, using two printer dots per dot specified by the image processor.
5. Variable speed, depending on black/white ratio, line by line.
6. The AIS program will also run on all Press printers.
7.About 6 seconds per revolution, three revolutions per full-color page. The first page takes another several seconds to emerge from the machine.
8.Roll fed machine -- no inter-page spacing.
Summary of Composition/Printing Program Capabilities
Editor/Illustrator OutputsPress FeaturesPrinting Software & Printers1
BravoMarkupSilDrawAISSprucePress (D)Press (S,P)Ears
x x x x text x x x x
x x rectangles x x x x
x graphics font x x
x objects x
x low res. dots x x x x
x high res. dots x
2 x x x color P2 P

1 D=Dover, S=Sequoia, P=Pimlico; 2 "Color-separated" Press files, only, at present
Currently Available Printers
NameEther AddressLocationPrinter TypeConfigurationServer Protocol
Palo3#3#35-2077EarsModel 44EFTP (Ears format)
Menlo3#164#35-2026Dover2 Model 31’sEFTP (Press)
Wonder6#265#35-3040DoverModel 31 onlyEFTP (Press)
Clover3#121#35-2069Dover2 Model 31’sEFTP (Press) or stand-alone
Viola,3#341#35-2069PimlicoT80EFTP (Press) or stand-alone
Kanji5#52#34-B10DoverT80EFTP (Press)
Daisy5#6#33-249Dover2 Model 31’sEFTP (Press)
Slot-23#116#35-2015Slot/3100T80stand-alone, by appt. only
Appendix -- Available Fonts (Palo Alto)
Files Containing Available Spruce Fonts (as of June 15, 1978 -- PARC only)
Available Spruce Fonts (as of June 15, 1978 -- PARC only)
FamilySize (pt.)Face
TimesRoman8, 10, 12MRR, BRR, MIR, BIR
Helvetica7, 8, 10, 12MRR, BRR, MIR, BIR
Gacha8, 10MRR, MIR
Cream10, 12MRR, BRR, MIR, BIR
Apl8, 10MRR
Dots256micaMRR (for Alto bit maps)
Landscape Fonts:
TimesRoman8MRR, MIR, BRR
TimesRoman10MRR, BRR
Helvetica6MRR, MIR

Appendix -- Useful File Directories
[Maxc1]<Gr-Docs>Graphics-related documents: Press formats, font formats, PrePress and Fred documentation, etc.
<Fonts>.EP, .EL, and (obsolete) .AL fonts for use on Altos and Ears. As of this writing, they correspond to the "old" Fonts.Widths specifications. Alto users should obtain their .EP and .EL fonts (for use with Bravo) from this directory.
<AltoFonts>.AL, .STRIKE fonts for use on Altos. As of this writing, they correspond to the "old" Fonts.Widths specifications. Alto users should obtain their screen fonts from this directory.
<PressFonts>.SF (mostly archived), .SD, and .AC fonts that are sources for the <Fonts> directory, and for current Palo Alto Spruce and Press fonts.
<Alto>,The repository for many of the systems described in this document.
<AltoDocs>The current "old" Fonts.Widths also resides on <Alto>.
<Dover>Documents and programs for the Spruce system, the Orbit EIP, and the Dover, including diagnostic programs. Many of these files are obsolete, having been superceded by files on [Ivy]<Spruce>.
<AIS>The AIS program, manual, and some sample AIS pictures.
<Press>The Press program operations manual, many sample Press files.
<Ears>,Nearly empty, mostly obsolete directories.
[Ivy]<Spruce>Current Spruce system and operations manuals,. the current OrbitTest diagnostic program, other systems valuable for Spruce development.
<PressFonts>.SD, .AC, and .AL fonts corresponding to the proposed "new" Fonts.Widths standards. These have also been scan-coverted at 384 dots/inch for Spruce and Press systems.
<Dover>Spruce font directories, for use on Dover systems. Contains both "old" style fonts and some of those to be used as "new" style fonts.
<Pimlico>"new" style Spruce font directories for Pimlico printers.
<Sequoia>"new" style Spruce font directories for Sequoia printers.
<Press>Copy of [Maxc]<Press> as of 1 November, 1977.

Appendix -- Glossary of Terms
AIS. Array of Intensity Samples. A file format, picture processing software, and printing program for arbitrary digitized (scanned) images. The AIS printing program has about the same bandwidth requirements as the Press program, and is in general supported on those printers that support Press.
bit map. a sequence of bits (usually represented as a sequence of computer words) that describe a dot pattern, at some specified resolution, simulating some graphic entity. To interpret a bit map one needs to know the order in which the sequence of bits must be laid down to produce the picture. This is usually expressed in terms of line length, the bit direction within each line, and the direction in which lines are scanned.
Bravo. An Alto-based text editor and formatter. Bravo can produce both Ears and Press format versions of its files (including "color separations" for Pimlico). It can either transmit these directly or retain them as named files.
BSP. Byte Stream Protocol, a high-level PUP-based protocol for high-speed, reliable transmission of information, in byte units.
Clover: An Alto/Dover/Spruce system, currently located in CSL.
Colorado. An experimental color RIS/ROS copier/printer system based on the 6500 color copier. Colorado comprises sophisticated digital and analog signal processing equipment, as well as an Alto interface (resembling that on the SLOT/3100). It is located in Dale Green’s laboratory at XEOS in Pasadena.
Doculist. A directory added at the beginning of an EARS format file specifying the fonts needed to print that file. The Pspool system removes this and includes the fonts themselves as a file is transmitted to the Ears printer. PressEdit uses this information to convert EARS files to Press format. The current Pub system produces files containing Doculists instead of actual fonts.
Dover. A ROS based on the 7000 duplicator and SLOT optics, using the standard TTL ROS adapter. Its EIP, interfaced using the 9-wire standard, is an Alto II/Orbit (see text). Dover is intended for field experiments requiring relatively low-cost printing facilities.
Draw. An interactive Alto program using cubic splines to express straight and curved lines, in monochrome or color. Draw produces Press output for printing.
EARS:A file format containing text to be printed, formatting specifications, and font information.
--A powerful, prototype EIP/ROS system, controlled by an Alto (or a Nova), specialized for printing text. The Ears system is a server system that accepts and prints EARS format files, without any preprocessing. (see Sears, Palo).
Eftp:A simple, PUP-oriented protocol, designed for file transmission from user programs to servers (especially printing servers). The server must acknowledge each packet before the next is sent. This protocol admits to compact implementation in user programs, offset by some redunction in bandwidth.
--Programs written for Alto and Maxc, implementing both EFTP sending (user) and receiving (server) protocols. Empress (Alto) or Press (Maxc) are usually preferred for communicating with Spruce servers.
EIP: Electronic Image Processor. A device that converts image descriptions into raster information for printing on a ROS. Similarly, a device that processes RIS input rasters, storing and/or interpreting them. Example: Alto II/Orbit.
Empress. An Alto program which converts ordinary text files to Press format and sends them to a Press printing server. Empres will also transmit pre-formatted Press files without additional conversion.
Epress. A Maxc program, invoked by Pspool, that converts Press format files to EARS format for transmission by Pspool to an Ears system.
fonts. Character representations (either outlines or bitmaps).
Fred. A font design program on the Alto, which allows the specification of spline outlines for characters.
Ftp.A File Transmission Protocol, based on the BSP PUP-based protocol. Ftp is the preferred file transmission protocol, yielding quite acceptable bandwidths when correctly implemented. Maxc and IFS systems support this protocol; for IFS, it is the only file transmission currently supported.
--An Alto program providing file transmission facilities using the Ftp protocol. This program also provides a "Telnet" facility, for standard Ascii terminal communication with a variety of systems on the Internetwork.
Gears. An Alto program which composes text files and transmits them to the Ears ROS system.
half-tones: Binary images which simulate continuous tone images by varying the number of dots printed proportional to the intensity.
Icarus. An interactive, display based LSI design and layout program. Icarus produces Press files as a means of obtaining "proof" hardcopy of the new circuits.
Internetwork. The collection of Ethernets, telephone lines, and gateway machines that comprise the current Xerox experimental network. All machines in the internetwork share a common, two-level address space. In general, any machine may communicate with any other, using one of the PUP-based protocols. Other packet protocols are not forwarded by gateways, limiting such communications to their local network of origin.
Kanji: An Alto/Dover/Spruce system, currently located in OSL (Bldg. 34).
Markup. An Alto program which allows text and graphic composition (at Alto screen resolution). Input and output is a Press file.
Menlo: An Alto/Dover/Spruce system, currently located in SSL.
Ngpr. An Alto program that converts Sil format files to EARS format, then (optionally) transmits the resulting file to an Ears server.
Nppr. An Alto program that converts Sil format files to Press format. The user must transmit the resulting Press file to a printing server.
objects (Press). Graphic data specified by an outline consisting of a series of display commands (Moveto, Drawto, DrawCurve).
Orbit. A hardware device connected to an Alto whose function is to place raster representations of characters at specified positions on the bitmap for a printed page. An Alto/Orbit combination comprises an EIP.
OZ The Officetalk Zero system, which (among other things) produces file output in Press format.
Palo: An Alto/Ears/Sears system, located in CSL.
Pimlico. An obsolete name for a computer controlled ROS version of the Xerox 6500 color copier. (cf. Pimlico)
PrePress. A program for converting among the various font formats, and maintaining dictionaries of fonts.
Press:A file format allowing total specification of the printed appearance of a document. Press format can handle text, (half tone) bit maps, rectangles, and object outlines. It has provisions for inclusion of additional information, for use by text editors, formatting systems, etc.
--An Alto program for printing Press format files on a variety of ROS printers (see the text and the appendices for a complete list).
--A command provided by Maxc systems for printing text and Press files.
PressEdit. A program which runs on Maxc and converts EARS files to Press format, adds fonts to Press files, creates blank Press files with any set of fonts, extracts pages from EARS/Press files and puts them into a new Press file, merges figures with text documents, and will add the private data stamp to Press files.
Pspool.A server job on Maxc systems that formats and transmits (converted) text, EARS format, and Press format files to appropriate printing servers. Files are placed on the <Printer> directory by other programs; in addition to printing the files that appear there, Pspool manages this directory.
--An augmentation to standard Ascii text format, specifying simple margin adjustments, font changes, and heading requests. The Pspool program interprets this format, converting to the proper printer specifications.
Pub. A program on Maxc which takes documents containing special formatting commands, and produces EARS files.
PUP. The PARC Universal Packet, a format for data packets that can be routed or broadcasted among any of the hosts in the internetwork. PUP format specifies only source, destination, error checking information, a top-level command code, and limited sequencing information. Additional protocols must be implemented by structuring the data contained in the packets.
PUP-based Protocols. Any of the hierarchy of communications protocols that have been defined in terms of PUP (e.g., EFTP, FTP, BSP, RTP (Rondesvous/Termination Protocol), etc.)
rectangles (Press). Special Press objects whose shapes are specified by two corners; the rectangle sides are drawn parallel with the paper edges. Rectangular shapes which are not parallel to the paper edges are considered regular objects.
ROS,RIS. Raster output(input) scanner. A device which produces a video stream, either to a printer (ROS) or from a document (RIS).
ROS Adapter. A hardware module which communicates among the Orbit, ROS, and printing engine.
Sears. The printing and spooling program for the Ears ROS system.
Sequoia. A Xerox 3100 copier with Orbit and ROS adapter.
server. A program which runs unattended, accepting input from the internetwork.
SIL. A design program on the Alto, which supports circuit design. The graphic features included for circuit design are useful for other design functions; SIL is sometimes used as a general graphic editor.
Slot. A laser ROS (Scanned Laser Output Terminal).
Slot/3100. A Xerox 3100 copier with a simple Slot interface.
Slot-2: An Alto/Slot/3100 system, currently located in SSL (appt. only).
solid-area development. The ability to produce an image with large areas of solid toner (3100, 6500). Attempts to print solid areas on other copiers causes "white-out," where only the edges of the area are printed.
splines (as used in Press). A kind of curve definition, using cubic equations.
Spruce. Software for printing simple Press files (text, fixed resolution bitmaps) on an Orbit device. Spruce is a server.
Stand-alone printers. Printers which are not servers.
TC-200. A 200 dot per inch RIS/ROS system. Output speed is about 30 seconds per page.
Turkey: An Alto/Sequoia/Spruce system, located in SDD/Palo Alto.
Viola: An Alto/Pimlico system, located in CSL. Runs Spruce or Press.
Versatec. A matrix printer.
Wonder: An Alto/Dover/Spruce system, currently located in Bldg 35, 3d floor.
3100. A solid-area development Xerox copier.
6500. A solid-area development color Xerox copier.
7000. A high speed Xerox copier/duplicator.