Chat is  a program  for establishing Pup  Telnet connections  between a
pair  of cooperating  parties.  Its  chief function  is to  permit Alto
users to login to Maxc and IFS servers.  Chat includes an  extension to
support text-display control and graphics.  Chat also  includes support
for attachment of IBM-PCs to the network via a DLS line.

1. Simple operation

Chat  is  organized so  that  default operation  with  Maxc  is simple.
Simply  saying  "Chat"  will  establish  a  connection  with  Maxc  and
(provided you are "logged in"  on your Alto) will try to  establish the
Alto as  controlling terminal for  a Maxc job  that is logged  in under
your name.  Chat will perform a "login" or "attach" as appropriate.  If
the  simple methods  fail you  must deal  with Maxc  yourself  (life is

To connect to some server  besides Maxc, type "Chat name"  where "name"
is the name  of the desired server  (Ivy, DLS, etc.) Chat  will perform
the automatic login if the server is a Maxc or an IFS.

If you don't  have the file Chat.Run  on your disk, the  Alto Executive
will boot-load  it from a  boot server on  the network.  In  this case,
Chat will not use the "name" you supply on the command line  but rather
will require you to type the server name directly to Chat.

If you are not  logged in on your Alto  at the time you start  Chat, or
you booted Chat from the network, Chat will first request that you type
in your user  name (if different from  the one installed on  your disk)
and password.

The preferred method for exiting Chat is to depress the key immediately
to the right of the "return" key on the keyboard, and then to press "q"
for Quit.  The  other method, <shift>SWAT, is  frowned upon and  is not
guaranteed to work.

If the connection fails or  is broken by the server, Chat  will display
an appropriate message and will ordinarily terminate.  However,  if you
booted Chat from the network,  Chat will continue running and  will ask
you for the name of a new server to connect to.

2. Command Interpreter

While Chat is running, you may wish to give various commands that alter
its  operation.  Depressing  the key  immediately to  the right  of the
RETURN key will cause Chat to enter a command mode.  The commands are:

                   Copyright Xerox Corporation 1983

Chat                         July 7, 1983                             2

C     Change  control  character  output  setting.   Control characters
      other  than  CR, LF,  and  Tab are  normally  displayed  as "↑x".
      Changing  this setting  causes  control characters  to  be thrown

D     Specify a "do" file to insert now.  The text of the file  will be
      treated as if  it had been typed  in at the keyboard--it  will be
      transmitted  to the  connected party.   This is  a simple  way to
      "can" Maxc procedures that you use a lot.

E     Change local  echo setting.   Chat starts  out assuming  that the
      connected  party will  echo all  characters.  In  some instances,
      Chat will want to echo your typein locally (e.g.,  when connected
      to another Chat).

F     Specify a new font. The screen will be re-initialized, which will
      cause recent typeout to disappear.  If insufficient core space is
      available for the font, the system font will be used.

I     Toggle the  "input" switch  for the typescript  file, set  by the
      USER.CM entry TYPESCRIPTCHARS (see below).

M     Toggle the  IBM PC mode  of operation, set  by the  USER.CM entry
      PCMODE (see below).

N     Permits you  to establish  a New  connection (after  breaking the
      current one), without leaving Chat.

O     Toggle the "output"  switch for the  typescript file, set  by the
      USER.CM entry TYPESCRIPTCHARS (see below).

Q     Quit--terminate the connection.

R     Receive  characters and  put into  specified file.   To terminate
      capture issue the command again with a CR.  Command T is reset if
      this command is issued.

S     Send the  text of  the file to  the connected  party.  This  is a
      simple way to transmit program text to the IBM-PC.

T     Specify a new  typescript file.  The  old typescript, if  any, is
      closed.  The new typescript will grow without bound, even  if the
      old  typescript  had a  length  limit specified  in  USER.CM (see

X     Toggle  the  "line  feed  strip"  option,  set  by  USER.CM entry
      LINEFEEDS (see below).

3. Command-line options

Several options may be passed to Chat by global switches in the command
line (i.e., by typing Chat/s/t where "s" and "t" are the switches):

/A          "Attach" -- meaningful only when connecting to  Maxc.  This
            will force the Maxc attach sequence to be typed rather than
            whatever Chat considers appropriate.

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/C          Chat  will suppress  output of  control  characters, rather
            than displaying them as "↑x".

/D          See /P below.

/E          Chat will cause local echoing of input characters.

/I          Equivalent  to the  command-line entry  Chat.Initial/D (see

/L          "Login" --  meaningful only when  connecting to Maxc  or an
            IFS.  This forces a login sequence to be  typed, regardless
            of what  Chat considers appropriate.   For example,  if you
            already have a  detached job on Maxc  and wish to  create a
            new job, you must use this option.

/M          Equivalent to the USER.CM entry PCMODE: ON (see below).

/N          Chat will not attempt any automatic login or attach.

/P or /D    Chat will enable a display protocol (see below).

/S          Chat will  be a  "Pup Telnet Server,"  and will  respond to
            requests for  connection from  others rather  than initiate
            requests itself.

/T          Chat will write  a typescript on file  Chat.ts$, regardless
            of whether or not a TYPESCRIPT entry appears in USER.CM.

/X          Chat will set the LINEFEEDS option to NO (see below).

Several options may be specified with "local" switches:

string      This gives the  "name" of the  party with whom  Chat should
            initiate a connection.  The name may be an address constant
            of the form net#host#socket, or may be a full symbolic name
            like  Maxc+Telnet (see  "Naming and  Addressing Conventions
            for Pup" for details).  The default socket is 1, the Telnet
            socket.  Thus typing "Chat Regis" will try to connect  to a
            Telnet server on the host named Regis.

filename/D  This gives a  "do" file name that  is fed to  the connected
            party.  When the last character of the file has  been sent,
            Chat will not close the connection.

filename/E  Similar to /D, but will end the connection when end of file
            is encountered.

filename/F  Specifies the name of the font to use.

filename/T  Specifies the name of the typescript file.

4. USER.CM Options

The  USER.CM  file may  also  contain defaults  that  Chat  examines at
initialization.  The section of  USER.CM that Chat examines  must begin

Chat                         July 7, 1983                             4

with a  line with  the 6  characters [CHAT]  on it.   Thereafter, lines
begin  with  "labels,"  followed  immediately  by  colons,  followed by

Note that Chat does not look at (or anything else on your disk)
if you boot-loaded it from the network.

In the following descriptions, square brackets enclose  parameters that
are optional--you shouldn't actually type the square brackets.


      Tells what to do when  a bell character is received.  If  DING is
      specified, a pattern  that spells out  DING will be  displayed at
      the top of the screen.  If FLASH is specified, the bottom area of
      the screen will flash black.  If AUDIO is specified, and you have
      a loudspeaker connected to your Alto's Diablo  printer interface,
      an audible tone  will sound.  Any  combination of options  can be
      specified together (default: DING FLASH).


      Gives the color of the top border of the screen (default: white).

CONNECT: net#host#socket or host-name

      Gives the network address constant or name of the party with whom
      a  connection should  be  initiated (see  "Naming  and Addressing
      Conventions for Pup"  for details).  Default is  Maxc+Telnet, the
      Maxc Pup Telnet server.


      Normally,  control  characters other  than  CR, LF,  and  Tab are
      displayed in the  form "↑x".  This option  forces them not  to be
      displayed at all.  Default is ON.


      This entry enables  a display protocol.   The same effect  can be
      achieved with  the /P  or /D  command-line switches.   Default is


      This option  turns on local  echoing.  This is  usually necessary
      only if you are connecting to another Alto running Chat  that has
      used the /S option.

FONT: AltoFontName.AL [width height]

      Gives the name of a font to use when displaying typeout  from the
      connected party  (default: system font).   If two  numbers follow
      the  name,  they are  interpreted  as  the width  of  a  line (in
      characters) and the height  of a page (in lines).   These numbers
      override the calculations  made by Chat,  and are shipped  to the
      server to set the terminal parameters.


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      Normally, line feeds transmitted by the other party  are included
      in the typescript  file.  If you wish  to keep line feeds  out of
      the file, set LINEFEEDS: OFF.


      Normally, carrage returns are not followed by line feeds  in text
      send to  the other party.   If you wish  Chat to send  line feeds
      after carrage returns set PCMODE: ON.  THis option is intended to
      be used to communicate with and IBM-PC connected via a DLS line.

TYPESCRIPT: filename [length]

      Gives the name of a file  on which to record a typescript  of the
      session.  If length is specified,  the file will be treated  as a
      "ring" buffer of that length (in bytes; 65535 maximum).  The file
      will be created at the beginning of the session, so that the user
      can  be  certain  the  disk  will  not  overflow  when  recording
      typescript information.  The  characters "<=>" will mark  the end
      of  the  ring buffer,  which  will be  updated  periodically.  If
      length is  not specified,  the file will  grow without  bound and
      "<=>" will not  be appended.  In this  case, if the  disk becomes
      full  the  typescript  will  be  closed  and  a  warning  message


      This entry governs the selection of characters that  are included
      in  the  typescript  file.   The  first  on/off  switch  controls
      characters typed  on the  Alto keyboard: if  the switch  is "on,"
      these characters  will be  entered in  the typescript  file.  The
      second switch  controls characters sent  from the other  party to
      the Alto: if the switch is "on," these characters will be entered
      in the file.  Default is OFF ON.

5. Display Protocol

Chat  allows a  remote  program to  control carefully  the  entire Alto
display.  The interactive  facilities of the Alto  can thus be  used by
MAXC programs  and others.   A set of  Interlisp-10 functions  has been
written to  ease use  of the  display from  LISP.  These  functions are
documented   in   "Raster   Graphics   for    Interactive   Programming
Environments,"  by  R.F.  Sproull,  CSL-79-6,  and  are   contained  in
<SPROULL>ADIS.COM;   the   symbolics   (should   you   need   them)  in

"Display  Chat" is  almost completely  different from  "teletype Chat";
they  are  loaded as  one  program largely  for  convenience.   To exit
display Chat, use the  <shift><Swat> convention.  Be very  careful when
attaching and detaching jobs  that have Chat display  connections open.
If you re-attach  to a LISP job  that previously had  connections open,
and  CONTINUE  your LISP  job,  the connections  are  no  longer usable
because  the Pup  executive has  timed them  out.  ADISCheck  should be
called to verify the state of the connection.  After this call,  it may
be  necessary  to invoke  ADISInit  again.  If  this  procedure  is not
followed, you may get traps  with "IO Data Error" or some  such message
coming out of your LISP program!

Chat                         July 7, 1983                             6

Fonts are declared in User.Cm as follows: a line of the  form "DISPLAY-
FONT: FileName" is a font declaration.  Numbers are associated with the
fonts by the order in the file: the first is font 0, the second font 1,
etc.   The fonts  must be  in "strike"  format; several  fonts  in this
format are saved on the <ALTOFONTS> directory with extension .STRIKE.

The number of "regions" available to Chat can be altered by including a
line of the form "DISPLAY-REGIONS: 6" in User.Cm.

Two functions  for making  hard copies  are not  documented in  the CSL

ADISPress[file] (Flush).  This function writes a one-page Press file of
the given name on your Alto disk.  The page contains a bit-map  for the
current  contents of  the Chat  display area.   WARNING:  This function
requires considerable  quantities of  disk space  (about 130  pages per
file), and may lead to errors while writing the file.  Best use it only
when your state is safe.

ADISPressMaxc[file;scaleFactor] (Flush).   This function is  similar to
ADISPress,  but  the  file  will  be  written  on  the  connected  MAXC
directory.  The  scaleFactor defaults  to 1.0,  but can  be set  to any
fraction.  It will cause the Press file to contain directives to reduce
the size of the image of the screen when it is printed.

Efficiency  and space.   The ADIS  protocol operations  cost  a certain
amount in LISP function call and Tenex JSYS overhead; they also  have a
cost determined by  the number of bytes  of protocol commands  that are
sent to Chat.  Thus we  can express the communication cost in  terms of
the number of  "characters" we could  display by transmitting  the same
number of bits.  Here are approximate numbers:

ADISRegion                                       4
ADISLimits                                       16
ADISSetX,ADISSetY,ADISFont                       5
ADISBold,ADISItalic,ADISSetCR,ADISSetLF          5
ADISLineTo                                       6
ADISRegionOp                                     13 or 21
ADISScroll                                       34 in most cases

ADISButtonEnable                                 16
ADISTypeOnEvent                                  4

ADISCursor                                       43
ADISCursorMove                                   7

Space in the Alto is at  a premium.  At present, about 6700  words must
be  shared among  all fonts  and region  descriptions.  Note  that font
sizes vary.  Sizes are:

Region                                           34 words (always)
Helvetica8.Strike                                570 words
Helvetica10.Strike                               630 words