Find - a file searching subsystem The Find subsystem allows you to search text files at very high speed on an Alto. Examples of such files might be an address/telephone list, a source program, or a library catalog. Find basically looks for all the occurrences of a pattern in a file, just like doing repeated Jump commands in Bravo. A pattern is just a character sequence, except for the following: # in a pattern means "any character at all", e.g. CAP and CUP count as occurrences of the pattern C#P. ~ in a pattern means "allow one character in the occurrence to disagree with the corresponding character in the pattern". For example, LAP, CUP, and CAT all count as occurrences of the pattern ~CAP (or CAP~ or C~AP). Two ~s mean "allow two disagreements", and so on. Note that "disagreement" only means substituting one character for another: it does not include insertions (e.g. CLAP for CAP), deletions (CP for CAP), or transpositions (CPA for CAP). If you really want to have a pattern containing # or ~, you have to type a ' before it, e.g. to search for the character sequence ATOM #, you have to type ATOM '#. Unless you use the /c (Case) switch described below, upper and lower case letters are considered identical, e.g. Cap, cap, and CAP all count as occurrences of CAP or of cap. Unless you use the /s (Space) switch described below, blanks (spaces) in the file are completely ignored, e.g. C A P counts as an occurrence of CAP; blanks in the pattern are also ignored. There are two ways to invoke Find. The first way just searches a file for one pattern: >Find filename pattern (Since the Executive does something special about @, #, %, *, ↑, and ; in command lines, you must precede any of these characters in your pattern by a '. This is in addition to any 's you may need as described in the preceding paragraph.) The second way only specifies the file: >Find filename and Find then prompts you repeatedly for patterns. To leave Find when using it this way, use shift-Swat or type an empty pattern (just type <return> when Find says Pattern:). You can also use Find to search several files together, by invoking it with >Find/m filename1 ... filenamen which also prompts you for patterns. In any of the above command lines, you can also use the /c, /d, and/or /s switches described above, i.e. any of the forms >Find/s filename pattern >Find/s filename >Find/ms filename1 ... filenamen The switches may be in any order or combination, e.g. >Find/csm filename1 ... filenamen tells Find to search filename1 ... filenamen treating upper and lower case as different and not ignoring spaces. This also applies to the switches described below. ------------ Copyright Xerox Corporation 1979 Find November 6, 1979 2 After completing the search, Find displays at the top of the screen a summary of the form: 79 occurrences, 1200 ms, 150 pages giving the total number of occurrences, the time in milliseconds, and the number of disk pages in the file. In the remainder of the screen, Find displays the line containing each occurrence of a pattern, with the occurrence indicated in boldface. To the left of the line, Find displays the character position in the file where the occurrence was found. After each screenful, Find waits for you to type <space> if you want more, or <del> if you don't. In addition to displaying matches on the screen, Find always writes the lines containing matches on a file called Find.Matches. Normally, Find only writes those matches which it displayed, so if you stopped the display of matches with <del>, only those matches you actually saw will appear on the file. However, if you use the /a (All) switch, Find will write all matches on the file, not just the ones you saw displayed; if you use the /w (Write only) switch, Find will write all matches on the file and not display them at all. What Find finds for you is all the "items" containing occurrences of the pattern. Normally an "item" is just a single line of text, delimited by <cr> on both ends. However, Find also knows about two other kinds of items: Bravo paragraphs, and groups of lines separated from each other by a blank line. If you use the /p (Paragraph) switch, Find will show (display and write on Find.Matches) the entire Bravo paragraph containing the occurrence. If you use the /b (Blank line) switch, Find will show everything surrounding the occurrence up to the next preceding and following blank line. So that you can examine Find.Matches with Bravo, Find normally removes any character sequences that Bravo might confuse with its own formatting information. There are two exceptions to this. If you ask for entire paragraphs (/p switch), Find preserves the formatting. If for some reason you want the characters around the match copied regardless of their possible interpretation by Bravo (e.g. if you are searching a binary file or some unusual kind of text file), you can use the /v (Verbatim) switch, which instructs Find not to remove sequences that look like Bravo formatting; if you do this, you will probably not be able to read the file into Bravo with the ordinary Get command, but should use the ↑Z (unformatted Get) command instead. Find normally displays, but does not write on Find.Matches, the position of each occurrence within the file, in octal. If you want this number written Find.Matches as well, use the /o (Octal) switch. Find produces a large number of error messages. The messages Pattern too long Can't preallocate RAM full all mean the same thing, namely that your pattern is too long or too complicated (unfortunately, it is too complicated to explain exactly what "too complicated" means). The message Can't load RAM means that your Alto has old or non-standard ROMs and Find can't do what it needs to do: you should contact a hardware maintainer. (This should never happen on Alto II's.) Find has many obvious limitations. They can all be removed if people Find November 6, 1979 3 complain about them. The following features could also be added upon request: Boolean combinations of matches, maybe. Ability to work with Trident disks. Possibly other features requested by users. Programmers should note that the file searching capability is also available as a library package (called FindPkg), so programs can use it as well as people. Alphabetic summary of switches: /a - write All matches on file /b - item = text between Blank lines /c - distinguish between upper and lower Case /m - Multiple files /o - write Octal position on Find.Matches /p - item = Bravo Paragraph /s - consider Spaces significant /v - write Verbatim on Find.Matches (don't strip possible formatting) /w - only Write on Find.Matches, don't display History of changes: Release of October 30, 1979 Added /o (write octal position), /v (verbatim output of matches, i.e. don't flush Bravo formatting), /a (write all matches to file), and /w (only write matches, don't display). Fixed bugs which caused display garbage and occasional crashes when lines were very long, and infinite loop when searching files containing <del>s. Changed default to remove Bravo formatting from matches file unless /p or /v switch set. Release of January 16, 1978 Added /c (distinguish upper and lower case), /p (item = paragraph), and /b (item = between blank lines) switches.